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Traditionally, the festival was a time to honour deities as well as ancestors. Often, the evening preceding Lunar New Year's Day is an occasion for Chinese families to gather for the annual reunion dinner.
It is also traditional for every family to thoroughly clean the house, in order to sweep away any ill-fortune and to make way for incoming good luck.
Windows and doors are decorated with red colour paper-cuts and couplets with popular themes of "good fortune" or "happiness" , "wealth", and "longevity".
Other activities include lighting firecrackers and giving money in red paper envelopes. In about one third of the Mainland population, or million Northerners, dumplings especially those of vegetarian fillings feature prominently in the meals celebrating the festival.
The lunisolar Chinese calendar determines the date of Lunar New Year. Chinese calendar defines the lunar month with winter solstice as the 11th month, which means that Chinese New Year usually falls on the second new moon after the winter solstice rarely the third if an intercalary month intervenes.
The Gregorian Calendar dates for Chinese New Year from to are below, along with the year's presiding animal zodiac and its Stem-branch.
The traditional Chinese calendar follows a Metonic cycle like the modern Jewish Calendar , and returns to the same date in Gregorian calendar roughly.
The names of the Earthly Branches have no English counterparts and are not the Chinese translations of the animals.
Alongside the year cycle of the animal zodiac there is a year cycle of heavenly stems. Each of the ten heavenly stems is associated with one of the five elements of Chinese astrology , namely: Wood , Fire , Earth , Metal , and Water.
The elements are rotated every two years while a yin and yang association alternates every year. The elements are thus distinguished: These produce a combined cycle that repeats every 60 years.
For example, the year of the Yang Fire Rat occurred in and in , 60 years apart. Many people inaccurately calculate their Chinese birth-year by converting it from their Gregorian birth-year.
As the Chinese New Year starts in late January to mid-February, the previous Chinese year dates through 1 January until that day in the new Gregorian year, remaining unchanged from the previous Gregorian year.
For example, the year of the Snake began on 6 February The year is generally aligned with the year of the Snake. However, the year of the Dragon officially ended on 5 February This means that anyone born from 1 January to 5 February was actually born in the year of the Dragon rather than the year of the Snake.
Many online Chinese Sign calculators do not account for the non-alignment of the two calendars, using Gregorian-calendar years rather than official Chinese New Year dates.
One scheme of continuously numbered Chinese-calendar years assigns to the year beginning, , but this is not universally accepted; the calendar is traditionally cyclical, not continuously numbered.
Although the Chinese calendar traditionally does not use continuously numbered years, outside China its years are sometimes numbered from the purported reign of the mythical Yellow Emperor in the 3rd millennium BCE.
But at least three different years numbered 1 are now used by various scholars, making the year beginning CE the "Chinese year" , , or According to tales and legends, the beginning of the Chinese New Year started with a mythical beast called the Nian.
Nian would eat villagers, especially children. One year, all the villagers decided to go hide from the beast. An old man appeared before the villagers went into hiding and said that he's going to stay the night, and decided to get revenge on the Nian.
All the villagers thought he was insane. The old man put red papers up and set off firecrackers. The day after, the villagers came back to their town to see that nothing was destroyed.
They assumed that the old man was a deity who came to save them. The villagers then understood that the Nian was afraid of the color red and loud noises.
When the New Year was about to come, the villagers would wear red clothes, hang red lanterns, and red spring scrolls on windows and doors. People also used firecrackers to frighten away the Nian.
From then on, Nian never came to the village again. The Nian was eventually captured by Hongjun Laozu , an ancient Taoist monk.
After that, Nian retreated to a nearby mountain. The name of the mountain has long been lost over the years. Chinese New Year is observed as a public holiday in a number of countries and territories where there is a sizable Chinese population.
Since Chinese New Year falls on different dates on the Gregorian calendar every year on different days of the week, some of these governments opt to shift working days in order to accommodate a longer public holiday.
In some countries, a statutory holiday is added on the following work day when the New Year falls on a weekend, as in the case of , where the New Year's Eve 9 February falls on Saturday and the New Year's Day 10 February on Sunday.
For other countries where Chinese New Year is celebrated but not an official holiday, see the section below on Festivities outside China.
During the festival, people around China will prepare different gourmet for families and guests. Influenced by the flourished cultures, foods from different places look and taste totally different.
Among them, the most well-known ones are dumplings from northern China and Tangyuan from southern China. For those that believe in Buddhism, the Laba holiday is also considered Bodhi Day.
The porridge was prepared by the women of the household at first light, with the first bowl offered to the family's ancestors and the household deities.
Every member of the family was then served a bowl, with leftovers distributed to relatives and friends. The concept of the "La month" is similar to Advent in Christianity.
Many families eat vegetarian on Chinese New Year eve, the garlic and preserved meat are eaten on Chinese New Year day. On the days immediately before the New Year celebration, Chinese families give their homes a thorough cleaning.
There is a Cantonese saying "Wash away the dirt on nin ya baat " Chinese: It is believed the cleaning sweeps away the bad luck of the preceding year and makes their homes ready for good luck.
Brooms and dust pans are put away on the first day so that the newly arrived good luck cannot be swept away.
Some people give their homes, doors and window-frames a new coat of red paint; decorators and paper-hangers do a year-end rush of business prior to Chinese New Year.
Purchasing new clothing and shoes also symbolize a new start. Any hair cuts need to be completed before the New Year, as cutting hair on New Year is considered bad luck due to the homonymic nature of the word "hair" fa and the word for "prosperity".
Businesses are expected to pay off all the debts outstanding for the year before the new year eve, extending to debts of gratitude. Thus it is a common practice to send gifts and rice to close business associates, and extended family members.
In many households where Buddhism or Taoism is prevalent, home altars and statues are cleaned thoroughly, and decorations used to adorn altars over the past year are taken down and burned a week before the new year starts, to be replaced with new decorations.
Taoists and Buddhists to a lesser extent will also "send gods back to heaven" Chinese: This is done so that the Kitchen God can report to the Jade Emperor of the family household's transgressions and good deeds.
Families often offer sweet foods such as candy in order to "bribe" the deities into reporting good things about the family. Prior to the Reunion Dinner, a prayer of thanksgiving is held to mark the safe passage of the previous year.
Confucianists take the opportunity to remember their ancestors, and those who had lived before them are revered. Some people do not give a Buddhist prayer due to the influence of Christianity, with a Christian prayer offered instead.
The biggest event of any Chinese New Year's Eve is the annual reunion dinner. Dishes consisting of special meats are served at the tables, as a main course for the dinner and offering for the New Year.
This meal is comparable to Thanksgiving dinner in the U. In northern China, it is customary to make dumplings jiaozi after dinner to eat around midnight.
Dumplings symbolize wealth because their shape resembles a Chinese sycee. In contrast, in the South, it is customary to make a glutinous new year cake niangao and send pieces of it as gifts to relatives and friends in the coming days.
After dinner, some families go to local temples hours before the new year begins to pray for a prosperous new year by lighting the first incense of the year; however in modern practice, many households hold parties and even hold a countdown to the new year.
Traditionally, firecrackers were lit to scare away evil spirits with the household doors sealed, not to be reopened until the new morning in a ritual called "opening the door of fortune" simplified Chinese: The first day is for the welcoming of the deities of the heavens and earth, officially beginning at midnight.
It is a traditional practice to light fireworks, burn bamboo sticks and firecrackers and to make as much of a din as possible to chase off the evil spirits as encapsulated by nian of which the term Guo Nian was derived.
Many Buddhists abstain from meat consumption on the first day because it is believed to ensure longevity for them. Some consider lighting fires and using knives to be bad luck on New Year's Day, so all food to be consumed is cooked the days before.
On this day, it is considered bad luck to use the broom, as good fortune is not to be "swept away" symbolically.
Most importantly, the first day of Chinese New Year is a time to honor one's elders and families visit the oldest and most senior members of their extended families, usually their parents, grandparents and great-grandparents.
For Buddhists, the first day is also the birthday of Maitreya Bodhisattva better known as the more familiar Budai Luohan , the Buddha-to-be.
People also abstain from killing animals. Some families may invite a lion dance troupe as a symbolic ritual to usher in the Chinese New Year as well as to evict bad spirits from the premises.
Business managers also give bonuses through red packets to employees for good luck, smooth-sailing, good health and wealth.
While fireworks and firecrackers are traditionally very popular, some regions have banned them due to concerns over fire hazards.
For this reason, various city governments e. As a substitute, large-scale fireworks display have been launched by governments in such city-states as Hong Kong and Singapore.
However, it is a tradition that the indigenous peoples of the walled villages of New Territories , Hong Kong are permitted to light firecrackers and launch fireworks in a limited scale.
The second day of the Chinese New Year, known as "beginning of the year" simplified Chinese: Traditionally, married daughters didn't have the opportunity to visit their birth families frequently.
During the days of imperial China, "beggars and other unemployed people circulate[d] from family to family, carrying a picture [of the God of Wealth] shouting, " Cai Shen dao!
Business people of the Cantonese dialect group will hold a 'Hoi Nin' prayer to start their business on the 2nd day of Chinese New Year so they will be blessed with good luck and prosperity in their business for the year.
A representative from the government asks Che Kung about the city's fortune through kau cim. The third day is known as "red mouth" Chinese: Chikou is also called "Chigou's Day" Chinese: Chigou , literally "red dog", is an epithet of "the God of Blazing Wrath" Chinese: Rural villagers continue the tradition of burning paper offerings over trash fires.
It is considered an unlucky day to have guests or go visiting. In those communities that celebrate Chinese New Year for 15 days, the fourth day is when corporate "spring dinners" kick off and business returns to normal.
Other areas that have a longer Chinese New Year holiday will celebrate and welcome the gods that were previously sent on this day. This day is the god of Wealth's birthday.
In northern China, people eat jiaozi , or dumplings, on the morning of powu Chinese: In Taiwan, businesses traditionally re-open on the next day the sixth day , accompanied by firecrackers.
It is also common in China that on the 5th day people will shoot off firecrackers to get Guan Yu 's attention, thus ensuring his favor and good fortune for the new year.
The seventh day, traditionally known as Renri the common person's birthday , is the day when everyone grows one year older. In some overseas Chinese communities in Southeast Asia, such as Malaysia and Singapore, it is also the day when tossed raw fish salad, yusheng , is eaten for continued wealth and prosperity.
For many Chinese Buddhists, this is another day to avoid meat, the seventh day commemorating the birth of Sakra , lord of the devas in Buddhist cosmology who is analogous to the Jade Emperor.
Another family dinner is held to celebrate the eve of the birth of the Jade Emperor, the ruler of heaven. Approaching 12 midnight on this day, Hokkien people prepare for the "Jade Emperor ritual" Hokkien: Some people will hold a ritual prayer after midnight on the eighth day.
In Malaysia, especially, people light fireworks, often more than on the first day. This day, called Ti Kong Dan Hokkien: Come midnight of the eighth day of the new year, Hokkiens will offer thanks to the Emperor of Heaven.
A prominent requisite offering is sugarcane. Incense, tea, fruit, vegetarian food or roast pig, and gold paper is served as a customary protocol for paying respect to an honored person.
The fifteenth day of the new year is celebrated as " Yuanxiao Festival" simplified Chinese: Rice dumplings tangyuan simplified Chinese: Candles are lit outside houses as a way to guide wayward spirits home.
This day is celebrated as the Lantern Festival , and families walk the street carrying lighted lanterns. In China , Malaysia , and Singapore , this day is celebrated by individuals seeking a romantic partner, akin to Valentine's Day.
The taste is an indication of their possible love: A reunion dinner , named as "Nian Ye Fan", is held on New Year's Eve during which family members gather for a celebration.
The venue will usually be in or near the home of the most senior member of the family. The New Year's Eve dinner is very large and sumptuous and traditionally includes dishes of meat namely, pork and chicken and fish.
Most reunion dinners also feature a communal hot pot as it is believed to signify the coming together of the family members for the meal.
Most reunion dinners particularly in the Southern regions also prominently feature specialty meats e. In most areas, fish traditional Chinese: If in the previous year a death was experienced in the family, seven dishes are served.
Red packets for the immediate family are sometimes distributed during the reunion dinner. These packets contain money in an amount that reflects good luck and honorability.
Several foods are consumed to usher in wealth, happiness, and good fortune. Several of the Chinese food names are homophones for words that also mean good things.
Like many other New Year dishes, certain ingredients also take special precedence over others as these ingredients also have similar-sounding names with prosperity, good luck, or even counting money.
In , the ruling Kuomintang party in China decreed that Chinese New Year will fall on 1 Jan of the Gregorian Calendar, but this was abandoned due to overwhelming opposition from the populace.
The public celebrations were reinstated by the time of the Chinese economic reform. On New Year's Eve, family members will gather together and have dinner.
The Gala includes a lot of forms of performances and watching the gala has gradually becomes a tradition.
Traditionally, red envelopes or red packets Cantonese: Red packets almost always contain money, usually varying from a couple of dollars to several hundred.
Sometimes chocolate coins are found in the red packets. Odd and even numbers are determined by the first digit, rather than the last.
Thirty and fifty, for example, are odd numbers and are thus appropriate as funeral cash gifts. It is customary for the bills to be brand new printed money.
Everything regarding the New Year has to be new in order to have good luck and fortune. The act of asking for red packets is normally called Mandarin: A married person would not turn down such a request as it would mean that he or she would be "out of luck" in the new year.
Red packets are generally given by established married couples to the younger non-married children of the family.
It is custom and polite for children to wish elders a happy new year and a year of happiness, health and good fortune before accepting the red envelope.
Red envelopes are then kept under the pillow and slept on for seven nights after Chinese New Year before opening because that symbolizes good luck and fortune.
In Taiwan in the s, some employers also gave red packets as a bonus to maids , nurses or domestic workers from Southeast Asian countries, although whether this is appropriate is controversial.
The Japanese have a similar tradition of giving money during the New Year, called Otoshidama. In addition to red envelopes, which are usually given from older people to younger people, small gifts usually food or sweets are also exchanged between friends or relatives of different households during Chinese New Year.
Gifts are usually brought when visiting friends or relatives at their homes. Common gifts include fruits typically oranges, but never trade pears , cakes, biscuits, chocolates, and candies.
Certain items should not be given, as they are considered taboo. Markets or village fairs are set up as the New Year is approaching.
These usually open-air markets feature new year related products such as flowers, toys, clothing, and even fireworks and firecrackers.
It is convenient for people to buy gifts for their new year visits as well as their home decorations. In some places, the practice of shopping for the perfect plum tree is not dissimilar to the Western tradition of buying a Christmas tree.
Bamboo stems filled with gunpowder that was burnt to create small explosions were once used in ancient China to drive away evil spirits. In modern times, this method has eventually evolved into the use of firecrackers during the festive season.
Firecrackers are usually strung on a long fused string so it can be hung down. Each firecracker is rolled up in red papers, as red is auspicious, with gunpowder in its core.
Once ignited, the firecracker lets out a loud popping noise and, as they are usually strung together by the hundreds, the firecrackers are known for their deafening explosions that are thought to scare away evil spirits.
The burning of firecrackers also signifies a joyful time of year and has become an integral aspect of Chinese New Year celebrations. The use of firecrackers , although a traditional part of the celebration, has over the years led to many unfortunate outcomes.
There have been reported incidents every year of users of fireworks being blinded, losing body parts, or suffering other grievous injuries, especially during the Chinese New Year season.
But, many governments and authorities eventually enacted laws completely banning the use of firecrackers privately, primarily because of safety issues.
Clothing mainly featuring the color red or bright colors is commonly worn throughout the Chinese New Year because it was once believed that red could scare away evil spirits and bad fortune.
In addition, people typically wear new clothes from head to toe to symbolize a new beginning in the new year.
Wearing new clothes also symbolizes having more than enough things to use and wear in the new year. In some places, the taking of a family portrait is an important ceremony after the relatives are gathered.
The photo is taken at the hall of the house or taken in front of the house. The most senior male head of the family sits in the center.
As with all cultures, Chinese New Year traditions incorporate elements that are symbolic of deeper meaning.
One common example of Chinese New Year symbolism is the red diamond -shaped fu characters Chinese: This sign is usually seen hanging upside down, since the Chinese word dao Chinese: Therefore, it symbolizes the arrival of luck, happiness, and prosperity.
For the Cantonese -speaking people, if the fu sign is hung upside down, the implied dao upside down sounds like the Cantonese word for "pour", producing "pour the luck [away]", which would usually symbolize bad luck; this is why the fu character is not usually hung upside-down in Cantonese communities.
Red is the predominant color used in New Year celebrations. Red is the emblem of joy, and this color also symbolizes virtue, truth and sincerity.
On the Chinese opera stage, a painted red face usually denotes a sacred or loyal personage and sometimes a great emperor. Candies, cakes, decorations and many things associated with the New Year and its ceremonies are colored red.
The sound of the Chinese word for "red" simplified Chinese: Nianhua can be a form of Chinese colored woodblock printing, for decoration during Chinese New Year.
The following are popular floral decorations for the New Year and are available at new year markets. Traditionally, families gather together during the Chinese New Year.
In modern China, migrant workers in China travel home to have reunion dinners with their families on Chinese New Year's Eve.
Owing to a large number of interprovincial travelers, special arrangements were made by railways , buses and airlines starting from 15 days before the New Year's Day.
This day period is called chunyun , and is known as the world's largest annual migration. In Taiwan, spring travel is also a major event. Visit Our Help Page.
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We all know how much the Chinese like the number 8 - it is their lucky number.